He is a tempter, distracting humans from practicing the Buddhist dharma through making the mundane seem alluring, or the negative seem positive.
Angels, Demons and the New World
Buddhism utilizes the concept of Mara to represent and personify negative qualities found in the human ego and psyche. The stories associated with Mara remind Buddhists that such demonic forces can be tamed by controlling one's mind, cravings and attachments. In Buddhist iconography, Mara is most often presented as a hideous demon, although sometimes he is depicted as an enormous elephant, cobra, or bull.
When shown in a anthropomorphic human form, he is usually represented riding an elephant with additional tusks. Other popular scenes of Mara show his demon army attacking the Buddha, his daughters tempting the Buddha, or the flood that washes away those under Mara's command. There are various kinds of demons in Hinduism , including Asuras and Rakshasas. Originally, the word Asura in the earliest hymns of the Rig Veda the holy book of the Indo-Aryans meant any supernatural spirit—good or bad.
Hence, even some of the devas demigods , especially Varuna , have the epithet of Asura. However, very soon, among the Indo-Aryans, Asura came to exclusively mean any of a race of anthropomorphic but hideous demons. All words such as Asura, Daitya lit. These demons are inherently evil and in a constant battle against the demigods. Unlike Christianity, the demons are not the cause of the evil and unhappiness in present humankind which occurs on the account of ignorance from recognizing one's true self. In later Puranic mythology, exceptions do occur in the demonic race to produce god-fearing Asuras, like Prahalada.
GUARDIANS: ILLUMINATI - FALLEN ANGELS - DEMONS - WORLD TAKE OVER - EVIL IS RUNNING THE WORLD
Also, many Asuras are said to have been granted boons from one of the members of the Hindu trinity , viz. All Asuras, unlike the devas, are said to be mortals though they vehemently wish to become immortal. Because of their mortality, they are excisable to the laws of Karma and rebirth. Many people metaphorically interpret these demons as manifestations of the ignoble passions in the human mind. The asuras live in Patala above Naraka Hell , one of the three Lokas worlds, dimensions, of existence.
They are often depicted as ugly creatures. The Puranas describe many cosmic battles between asuras and devas for supremacy.
On the account of the Hindu theory of reincarnation and transmigration of souls according to one's Karma , other kinds of demons can also be enlisted. If a human does extremely horrible and sinful karma in his life, his soul will, upon his death, directly turn into an evil ghostly spirit, many kinds of which are recognized in the later Hindu texts. Rakshasas are also called man-eaters "Nri-chakshas," "Kravyads" or cannibals.
A female rakshasa is called a rakshasi, and a female rakshasa in human form is a manushya-rakshasi. According to the Ramayana , rakshasas were created from Brahma 's foot; other sources claim they are descended from Pulastya, or from Khasa, or from Nirriti and Nirrita. Rakshasas are notorious for disturbing sacrifices, desecrating graves, harassing priests, possessing human beings, and so on.
They are shape changers, illusionists, and magicians. Pre-Islamic mythology does not discriminate between gods and demons. The jinn are considered as divinities of inferior rank, having many human attributes: They eat, drink, and procreate their kind, sometimes in conjunction with human beings; in which latter case the offspring shares the natures of both parents. The jinn smell and lick things, and have a liking for remnants of food.
In eating, they use the left hand. Usually, they haunt waste and deserted places, especially the thickets where wild beasts gather. Cemeteries and dirty places are also favorite abodes. In appearing to people, jinn assume sometimes the forms of beasts and sometimes those of men. Generally, jinn are peaceable and well disposed toward humans.
Many pre-Islamic poets were believed to have been inspired by good jinn; and Muhammad himself was accused by his adversaries of having been inspired by jinn "majnun". However, there were also evil jinn, who contrived to injure people. Islam recognizes the existence of the jinn. Jinns are not the genies of modern lore, and they are not all evil, as demons are described in Christianity, but are seen as creatures that co-exist with humans.
Angels cannot be demons according to Islamic beliefs because they have no free will to disobey Allah God. According to Islamic, belief jinn live in communities much like humans, and unlike angels have the ability to choose between good or evil. Iblis was the first Jinn. According to Islam, the jinn are made of smokeless flame of fire and humankind is made of clay. According to the Qur'an , Iblis was once a pious servant of God but not an angel , but when God created Adam from clay, Iblis became very jealous, arrogant, and disobeyed Allah God.
When Allah God commanded the angels to bow down before humans, Iblis, who held the position of an angel, refused. Adam was the first man, and man was the greatest creation of God. Iblis could not stand this, and refused to acknowledge a creature made of "dirt" man. God condemned Iblis to be punished after death eternally in the hellfire. God, thus, had created hell.
Iblis asked God if he may live to the last day and have the ability to mislead mankind and jinns, God said that Iblis may only mislead those whom God lets him. God then turned Iblis' countenance into horridness and condemned him to only have powers of trickery.
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Adam and Eve Hawwa in Arabic were both together misled by Iblis into eating the forbidden fruit, and consequently fell from the garden of Eden to Earth. French romance writer Jacques Cazotte in The Devil in Love Le Diable Amoureux, tells of a demon, or devil, who falls in love with an amateur human dabbler in the occult, and attempts, in the guise of a young woman, to win his affections.
Corso is hired to compare versions of a book allegedly authored in league with the Devil, and finds himself aided by a demon, in the form of a young woman, in his adventure. In Mikhail Lermontov's long poem , the Demon makes love to the virgin Tamara in a scenic setting of the Caucasus mountains. Anton Rubinstein's lushly chromatic opera , The Demon , based on the poem, "The Demon," by Lermontov, was delayed in its production because the censor attached to the Mariinsky Theatre felt that the libretto was sacrilegious.
Lewis 's The Screwtape Letters, Screwtape, a senior demon in Hell's hierarchy, writes a series of letters to his subordinate trainee, Wormwood, offering advice in the techniques of temptation of humans. Belief in celestial and demonic spirits soon regulated and affected the daily lives of Spanish, Indigenous and Mestizo peoples, while missionary networks circulated these practices to create a widespread and generally accepted system of belief that flourished in seventeenth-century Baroque culture and spirituality.
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This study of angels and demons sheds light on the intellectual and cultural developments in the centuries that followed the European encounter with America. Share this: Facebook Twitter Email Print. Learn more Check out. Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure.
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